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Higher education and non-pecuniary returns in Germany: Tracing the mechanisms behind field of Study effects at the start of the career.

Journal paper
Markus Klein
Irish Educational Studies 30 (2): 247-264. doi: 10.1080/03323315.2011.569144
Publication year: 2011

Working paper available for download

Klein, M. Mechanisms for the Effect of Field of Study on the Transition from Higher Education to Work. Mannheimer Zentrum für Europäische Sozialforschung. Working Paper 130.


This article addresses the question of why fields of study differ in early labour market returns. It is argued that the higher the potential training costs of a field of study the more problematic the labour market integration of graduates. This is due to the fact that employers use the occupational specificity and selectivity of a study programme as a signal for the expected training costs. In addition, the article suggests that structural relations between fields and occupations act as mediators for the effect of field of study on non-pecuniary returns. Using the German HIS Graduate Panel 1997, the results indicate that a lack of occupational specificity is partly responsible for differences between fields of study. Selectivity measures do not contribute to an explanation. As expected, working in the public sector and the required expertise for a job strongly mediate field of study differences.


Soziale Disparitäten in der Sekundarstufe und ihre langfristige Entwicklung

Book Chapter
Markus Klein, Steffen Schindler, Reinhard Pollak, Walter Müller
In: Jürgen Baumert, Kai Maaz, Ulrich Trautwein (eds.): Bildungsentscheidungen (Sonderband 12/09 Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft), p. 47-73. VS Verlag: Wiesbaden.
Publication year: 2010

Sozial erwünschtes Antwortverhalten bezüglich der Teilung häuslicher Arbeit: die Interaktion von Interviewergeschlecht und Befragtenmerkmalen in Telefoninterviews

Journal paper
Markus Klein, Michael Kühhirt
methods, data, analyses 4 (2): 228-245. PID: urn:nbn:de:0168-ssoar-210124
Publication year: 2010

Open access published version for download available


In this paper we examine the impact of the interviewer’s gender on respondents’ self-reported share of housework in telephone interviews. Due to a discrepancy between modern, egalitarian gender roles dominating public discussion and men’s marginal participation in housework we expect male respondents to answer in a socially desirable way and exaggerate their share of housework vis à vis female interviewers. At the same time, we assume that female respondents underreport their contribution to the couple’s housework to female interviewers. The effects of the interviewer’s gender should be less strong in case of female respondents than in case of male respondents, though. Additionally, theory suggests that young and educated respondents are particularly susceptible to effects of the interviewer’s gender as they are most aware of egalitarian gender roles due to their socialization and environment. For male respondents the results are largely consistent with the expectations. However, the effect of the interviewer’s gender varies stronger by age than by education. Regarding female respondents the results do not indicate any significant effects across age groups and educational degrees. Overall, the results show that social desirability may also bias self-reports of everyday behaviour. Moreover, interviewer effects vary considerably between different social groups.


Schein oder Sein: Bildungsdisparitäten in der europäischen Statistik. Eine Illustration am Beispiel Deutschlands

Journal paper
Walter Müller, Markus Klein
Journal of Contextual Economics 128 (4): 511-543. doi: 10.3790/schm.128.4.511
Publication year: 2008